Wednesday, 27 June 2012


“On average, adults who smoke cigarettes die 14 years earlier than non-smokers”

Ref: Annual Smoking – Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs – United States, 1995-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002: 51 (14): 300-303 quoted by The National Cancer Institute

Due to the many requests I have received asking me to clearly explain the serious diseases that smoking generates, I have posted this paper.  It is very long, and very heavy going – as that is the nature of the damage against the body that smoking creates.  You may want to read a part of it, and then come back to it.  What I hope it does do, is to propel people who are thinking of quitting into urgent action! One of the most important points I want to relay is: Cardiovascular disease and cancer take many years to develop – they can be 20 or 30 years in the process – while you are blissfully leading your life and making plans, totally unaware that this is going on. – Then suddenly - after all those years, the body’s internal workings can no longer cope. – At this stage symptoms start to manifest, and very sadly it is often too late and past the point of no return.

The vast majority of smokers live in countries which are or were on the low to middle position of the socio-economic scale. In countries which are developing, approximately 58% of men and 9% of women smoke; and in developed countries approximately 35% of men and 22% of women smoke.  The transfer of the nicotine epidemic from rich to poor countries seems increasingly inevitable.  I have spent time in many of these poorer nations, and have witnessed that cigarettes e.g. the hugely advertised Marlboro, are often just a fraction of the standard price - and where in many cases, smoking appears to replace proper food; and in some, seems to have replaced the natural instinct of just wanting to breathe in fresh air.


In 1665 the consequences of using tobacco were first laid down in a medical report.  This report by a British Royal Society, was the result of an experiment witnessed by Samuel Pepys in which a cat rapidly died after receiving “a drop of distilled oil of tobacco”. – If only that poor unfortunate cat had made an impact!

Moving onto 1791 a London physician reported cases in which the use of snuff created nasal cancers, and in 1795 a report on cancers of the lip in pipe smokers emerged in the U.S.  Then in 1798 a physician known as the Father of American Psychiatry, claimed that smoking or chewing tobacco lead to drunkenness! 

It then took all the way until the 1930s for a few published reports in the U.S. and Germany to link smoking with lung cancer.  Then in 1938 a doctor at John Hopkins University reported to the New York Academy of Medicine that smokers do not live as long as non-smokers.  The next year in Germany, the world’s first controlled epidemiological studies of the tobacco-lung relationship, and the record rise in tobacco sales along with increasing lung cancer, and a report on the correlation of smoking and other forms of cancer were presented.  As the reports were only limited, and the horrors of the impending Second World War were on their way, the data was automatically shelved.  In fact, as part of the war effort, President Roosevelt made tobacco a protected crop, and Eleanor Roosevelt, his wife, was named “the first lady to smoke in public.  Cigarette sales were rocketing and very few doctors even questioned the health risks. Cigarette advertising was blatantly running at full thrust in the American medical journals, enticing the physicians who read them. - One advert read: “The Thoughtful Physician Sends Cigarettes to His Patients Overseas”, and another: “More Doctors Smoke Camels”.

Moving on to the late 1940s, the impact of modern science gave birth to the concept of the link between smoking and disease. Various forms of data from both Europe and the US were put together, and evidence citing smoking as a cause of cancer lead to cancer scares in 1950 when the first major study linked smoking to lung cancer.

It was not until 1964 however, that the US Surgeon General stated that smoking causes lung cancer, and named smoking as the most significant cause of chronic bronchitis, pointing out a link between smoking and emphysema and smoking and coronary heart disease.   Naturally, this did not please the irresponsible and deceptive tobacco giants who responded by punching back with highly devious and aggressive multi-million dollar legal and political lines of attack. – The underhand corporations have put off and escaped government regulation and liability lawsuits over the years by the use of three primary arguments:

1. Has been that there was no irrefutable data that smoking actually caused disease.

2. Is that smoking is not addictive, and that it is an individual's wish to smoke. (This argument, which is the only one there can be, still stands).

3. Is that they are totally devoted to the scientific truth relating to the consequences of smoking on health, through their own independent investigation, and subsidized external research.


It seems that in the early 1960s BAT (British American Tobacco) and B&W (Brown and Williamson) were fully aware that nicotine was pharmacologically addictive.  Publicly however, it was a very different case, and the tobacco industry categorically insisted that nicotine was not addictive.

Regretfully, the scientific institutions of government around the world took a dangerously long time to acknowledge nicotine dependence, and it took right up until 1988 for the US Surgeon General to conclude that cigarettes and other types of tobacco such as cigars, pipe tobacco and chewing tobacco are addictive, and that nicotine is the drug responsible for addiction. – You can draw your own conclusions as to the reason why this statement took so long.  Research currently shows that nicotine levels would have to be reduced by a staggering 95% in order to lower addiction.

According to the estimates of the World Health Organisation, over 15 billion cigarettes are smoked worldwide every day.  - So until the foreseeable future this almighty wheel of greed, blue stock shares and exploitation will keep on moving as it runs over and kills countless millions on its way.

I have gone into explicit detail on the various diseases and illnesses related to smoking.  Whilst it may make gruesome reading, it is designed to give you an idea of the cold hard facts. – This assimilation of knowledge is all part and parcel of the protocol – an aspect intended to give you a far deeper awareness and understanding of the physiological processes that you could face.  Having this knowledge and imagery will hopefully give you a jolt – an electric shock into getting set and staying on the wagon.

The pathophysiology of smoking associated diseases is highly complicated and SMOKING ADVERSELY AFFECTS GENETIC DNA.  – This can create a broad range of serious repercussions – and this genetic damage may well be passed on to children.  

“Smoking is a Kind of Suicide”

No 2, The Prisoner

Smoking greatly harms different organ systems resulting in numerous tobacco-related diseases and in many cases, irrevocable degeneration.  Other than free radical damage, smoking produces a highly detrimental low-grade systematic inflammatory response.  Unfortunately, some inflammatory mediators (mediators are agents in a chemical or biological process) can still be significantly raised in ex-smokers up to 10-20 years after cessation.

Smokers have a higher number of white blood cells (leukocytes) than non-smokers. – The reason for this can be logically understood when one considers the threat the body detects from the continuous onslaught of particles of cigarette smoke.  Researchers have determined that an individual’s total white blood cell count maybe a credible marker in the link to disease created by free radicals and toxic substances.  Disturbingly, trials show that when long-term ex-smokers are tested, the count is lower than it was when they smoked, but still higher than the count of a person who has never smoked.                  


Heart and lung disease are both very seriously affected by smoking, and the American Cancer Society has estimated that smoking can steal around 15 years of your life.


The heart is the engine of life – a high performance organ that beats approximately 100,000 times per day and around 3 billion times in a lifetime.  With each beat of the heart 70ml of blood is pumped around the body – that equates to 5 litres every minute and 300 litres each hour.  And in times of physical stress, the heart can raise its stamina by up to 4-5 times.

Smoking affects the heart and circulation.  It can lead to heart attacks and arteriosclerosis which can lead to a range of serious diseases including: strokes (which if not fatal, can result in severe disability and loss of communication), peripheral vascular disease, gangrene, aortic and other aneurysms.  Astonishingly, smoking one packet of cigarettes a day generates the same amount of stress on the heart as 90 lbs (41 kgs). 


Nitric oxide is a chemical messenger and acts as the chief signalling molecule within the body.  It affects a broad range of vital physiological functions including: circulation, inflammation, and oxygen release within the tissues.  Nitric oxide is involved in the relaxation of blood vessels (which results in lower blood pressure and an increase in blood flow); regeneration of the artery lining, and inhibiting disc-shaped particles found in the blood (platelets) from clumping together.

Smoking generates a toxic reaction from the body’s own nitric oxide, and generates stiff and inflexible blood vessels because of a reduction in nitric oxide levels. Smoking is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease through increased hypertension, and platelet clumping. Both conditions can be attributed to the imbalance of nitric oxide. 


“Cigarette smoking results in a twofold to threefold increased risk of dying from coronary heart disease”

Ref: Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. American Public Health Association. 1998; 117-148 as cited by The National Cancer Institute in the US

Coronary heart disease (also referred to as heart disease), is the leading cause of death in the US for both men and women.  It comes about when there is a blockage in the blood vessels which supply blood, oxygen, and other vital nutrients to the heart.  The severity of the blockage can vary from chest pain (angina) on the lower end of the scale, to a life-threatening heart attack.

Interestingly, “angiogenesis” (the growth of new blood vessels) is a double-edged sword in that it can generate good or harmful results, depending on the form of disease.   Researchers are conducting experiments using angiogenesis in individuals with heart disease in order to generate the rebuilding of damaged heart muscle. 

Active damage to the cells in the artery walls is created by free radicals from cigarette smoke, fried fat, car fumes, and a poor and/or imbalanced supply of nutrients (which include certain vitamins and minerals as well as essential fatty acids).

Ironically, in an attempt to repair this cellular damage, the body goes against itself, and the cells in the artery walls start to proliferate (rather like cancer cells), and the artery walls start to acquire excess cholesterol from the bloodstream in an attempt to heal the damage.  The cholesterol deposits then start to grow - this attracts other fats which are in the blood as well as calcium. – And if there happens to be an excess of cholesterol or fat circulating at the time, then the process is hastened.  (Everyone is born with a particular gene pattern which has an influence on their cholesterol level.  It is important to know that cholesterol only attaches itself to blood vessels if they are unhealthy, or if fat is oxidised or not removed from the blood as it should be).

To understand the blockage of blood vessels, imagine if you will, this slow and gradual “cellular waste build-up” known as plaque and “atherosclerosis” (which could have started in the teens), and usually affects the large and medium-sized arteries.  Now it is logical to understand that as the years add up, this build-up becomes harder and harder and thicker and thicker, until ultimately the walls of the arteries change shape, become narrower, and a partial or total blockage is the result. Plaque narrows the arteries and reduces the flow of blood to the heart muscles.  (Tragically, a large percentage of American men in their 20s already have significant blockage of the arteries).  Nicotine accelerates the development of atherosclerotic plaque formation.

Plaques that rupture cause blood clots. (Blood clots occur more habitually in smokers than in non-smokers).  They are very serious indeed as they can halt the flow of blood, or break free and travel to another region of the body.  If a blood vessel which leads to the heart is blocked then the outcome is a heart attack.  If a blocked vessel which leads to the brain is blocked, it causes a stroke.

As smoking damages the walls of the blood vessels, the blood supply to the arms or legs can be compromised. – When this happens an individual could experience problems with walking, and in extreme cases, gangrene could set in.

Unfortunately, the early signs of atherosclerosis may not surface until people reach their 50s.  The lining of the blood vessels (the endothelium) must be in a good condition in order to prevent atherosclerosis forming, and how can it be that way with the high free radical load produced by smoking?


As the cardiovascular system is negatively affected if you are overweight, and the larger your waist measurement, the higher your risk of having a heart attack. The cardiovascular system is also unfavourably affected if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, consume too much cholesterol, have more than three alcoholic drinks per day, are stressed, or do not keep fit. If you have a family history of heart disease, or in the case of women - use oral contraceptives, then the risk of heart disease appears to be multiplied.

“People who smoke are up to 6 times more likely to suffer a heart attack than non-smokers, and the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked”

Ref: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. Quoted by The National Cancer Institute

Whilst men suffer heart attacks around ten years before women, after reaching menopause women catch up.  (Women suffer relatively few cardiovascular diseases prior to menopause because they are protected by the hormone oestrogen).  Statistics show that within a year of having a heart attack, a higher percentage of women die in comparison to men.

In 2002, a scientific study indicated that even light smokers (women who smoke as few as 3 cigarettes a day, and men who smoke 6 a day) doubled the hazard of having a heart attack.

Owing to a genetic factor, some families are more disposed to heart disease than others. This is because their serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations are naturally on the high side.

On an upbeat note – successful cessation leads to an increase in HDL (high density lipoprotein), the good form of cholesterol.

Whilst there is at present little scientific data available, cigar and pipe smokers appear to have a greater risk of mortality from heart disease and possibly stroke than cigarette smokers. 

Smokers who are African descendants are more liable to acquire high blood pressure than their counterparts who are European or Asian descendants.  This serious circumstance makes this category of smokers more prone to heart disease.  – Further research in this field needs to be done with a matter of urgency.

Individuals who already have coronary artery disease who smoke are liable to suffer from further complications or death. For those who have already suffered a heart attack and are able to successfully quit, then a reduction in future serious developments may well be possible.

Always be aware of any symptoms such as chest pain, inadequate blood flow, leg pain or numbness. – Remember that early exposure can halt development.

During an examination the physician may detect signs of narrowed, enlarged or hardened arteries.  Depending on the outcome, further diagnostic tests may be necessary.  These include:

Blood tests.

Doppler Ultrasound: (an ultrasound device to measure your blood pressure) at various points along your arm or leg. – These measurements can help to determine the degree of any blockages, in addition to the speed of blood flow in the arteries.

Ankle-Brachial Index:  In this test the physician can compare the blood pressure in your ankle with the blood pressure in your arm to see if there is an abnormal difference.

Electrocardiogram (ECG): This records the electrical signals as they travel along the heart.

Angiogram: This is the procedure of injecting a special dye into the arteries before a chest X-ray.  The dye outlines narrow spots and blockages.

The medical specialist may also employ ultrasound, a CT (computerized tomography) scan or a MRA (magnetic resonance angiogram) to study the arteries.  These tests can exhibit the hardening and narrowing of the large arteries, as well as aneurysms and calcium deposits in the artery walls.

It is important to understand the basic workings of the cardiovascular system, and I thoroughly recommend you print out a large coloured picture showing blocked arteries (which look like the inside of tubes coated in lard) from the internet, and display it somewhere you can see it every day.  

Type in “pictures of atherosclerosis” in a search engine. 


Each and every day we need to breathe in around 20,000 times. Our lungs are highly intricate organs which are required to supply oxygen, remove waste and toxins, and fight against infection. - The red blood cells take up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body’s cells.  The cells use oxygen to fuel the burning (combustion) of sugar and fat to create energy.  During this process carbon dioxide is formed as a waste by-product of the body’s metabolism.  The carbon dioxide binds to the red blood cells which have brought the oxygen into the body, and is carried back to the lungs where it is exchanged for fresh oxygen. 

A simple pulmonary function test to accurately measure lung capacity can be made with an instrument called a spirometer. – It measures how much (volume) and how fast (the flow) of air can be moved in and out of the lungs.  It is non-invasive, and just involves blowing into a mouthpiece.  A computerized sensor calculates and graphs the results. (A blood pressure test is also given). I strongly recommend having a test – often the results are so poor that it can be one of the factors driving smokers to quit.  Enquire with your physician or look on the net for providers.


Air inhaled through the nose and mouth passes through the throat into the tube-like trachea (windpipe).  The trachea then divides into two small air passages known as the left and right bronchi which are lined with mucous membranes and cilia. (The left and right bronchi supply the left and right lungs respectively).  The bronchi then progressively branch 22 additional times to the bronchioles.

There are over 100,000 bronchioles which consist of very small airways composed of smooth muscle.  The bronchioles then lead onto the alveoli – the final branches of the respiratory tree.

There are around 300 million alveoli which consist of microscopic air sacs which resemble grapes, and are similar to sponges.  They have very thin elastic walls consisting of a single layer of cells, under which lies a thick network of capillaries which act as the primary gas exchange units of the lungs.  Miraculously, when in optimum condition, they provide an enormous surface area of 70M2 for gaseous  exchange.

There are many types of cells in the lungs which perform various roles.  Some cells help to clear foreign matter, others clean the mucous membranes, and others act on substances crucial to the regulation of blood pressure, infection, or foreign material.


Lung disease is a definition which covers a broad spectrum of diseases and disorders associated with impaired lung function. When polluted by smoking and harmful carcinogens however, the lung tissue is severely weakened in its capacity to stave off disease producing agents. This fragility is caused by damage to the cells and a flagging immune response. – Both of which are perpetuated day in and day out as the addictions continues.

When healthy, a slice of lung resembles a pink sponge filled with tiny bubbles or holes.  Smoking transforms the lungs into an unhealthy darker colour, with black spots on the surface caused by carbon particles.  In good health, the lungs are elastic, yet when diseases such as emphysema set in, they lose their elasticity.  I strongly urge you to go to the internet and print off a coloured picture of damaged blackened lungs created by smoking, and put it in a prominent position where you will continually see it.  (Your PC and/or telephone screen, fridge door etc.)

Go to: and click on “vivid lung pictures” from the side menu, or search another relevant website by going to a search engine and typing in “pictures of blackened lungs caused from smoking”.

The three main categories of lung disease are:

-obstructive lung disease

-restrictive lung disease

-lung infections

All kinds of other damage include: chronic air flow blockages, chronic mucous secretion, and susceptibility to bacterial infection.  Smokers also suffer from more respiratory infections, throat inflammations and chronic bronchitis. 


“The risk of dying from lung cancer is more than 22 times higher among men who smoke cigarettes and about 12 times higher among women who smoke cigarettes compared with never smokers”

Ref: Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. American Public Health Association. 1998; 117-148 quoted by The National Cancer Institute

Cancer normally comes about after we are born – the 24/7 exposure to chemicals (such as those form cigarettes) and radiation in today’s world produces DNA mutations.  From time to time an individual cell may produce an irregularity in the DNA sequence of a significant gene with catastrophic results.

Cancer is the build-up of a number of mutations in major genes within a cell.  It encompasses many different diseases with various molecular abnormalities, and is the primary disease of the human genome. The genetic modifications that come about in the genome of a cancer cell create “disrupted molecular mechanisms”. 


ONCOGENES (mutated forms of proto-oncogenes): these usually promote cell growth/division.  If they are mutated they can boost cell growth.

TUMOUR-SUPRESSOR GENES: these oppose oncogenes by blocking cell growth/division.  If they have mutated they are unable to hold back cell growth/division.

GENES WHICH REPAIR DNA ERRORS: have the ability to stop additional damage to oncogenes and tumour-supressor genes.  If they are mutated they do not succeed in repairing the damage.

All forms of cancer begin with an alteration to an individual normal cell which produces an unlimited cell division as well as loss of differentiation.  - This means that they lose their definition, and are not able to perform their specific and normal functions – in this state they are more primitive, and are reliant on glucose as opposed to oxygen for their metabolism. 

When the body’s cells are in a healthy state they divide to form new cells when they are needed. (This normal healthy cell duplication is always limited). When healthy cells become old or damaged they die off and are replaced by new ones.  The trouble begins when this process does not function normally. - New unwanted cells are formed, and old and damaged ones do not die due to the faulty cell “death genes” of the cancer cells.  This cumulative effect results in an abnormal build-up of extra cells forming tissue. - This tissue often forms a tumour, and with further mutations it becomes cancerous.  A tumour is either classed as benign or malignant. – A “benign” tumour is non-cancerous, and a “malignant” tumour is cancerous. A malignant tumour always has the potential to spread and get bigger.  Normally, more than one cancer-producing factor has to accumulate before a malignant growth is generated. 

      DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION                     

Whilst the development of cancer is highly complex and not yet fully understood, the common presumption is that mutations in the genes’ DNA sequence alter the DNA sequence of the cells which can create the activation of cancer-promoting genes (oncogens) or deactivate the cancer protecting genes.  If several mutations occur in different genes a cell may then transform from a healthy one to a cancerous one.  As the process multiplies, the mutations escalate and it is at this time that changes become IRREVERSIBLE and cancerous cells form.  

It is important to understand that cancer is the effect of a small number of independent mutations within the cell which have taken place over a lengthy time period, and that it could be many years between one mutation and another. – And during this long period of years of normal living and planning your future, you are completely unaware of what is going on within you.

Cells often undergo changes making them abnormal but not yet cancerous – this stage is referred to as “pre-malignant”. These pre-malignant cells eventually go on to form a malignant tumour.  THIS IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY IT IS ABSOLUTELY VITAL TO HAVE REGULAR CHECK-UPS AND PRECANCEROUS TESTS WHETHER YOU ARE A SMOKER OR FORMER SMOKER, EVEN IF YOU HAVE SUCCESSFULLY STOPPED FOR MANY YEARS. 

LC Detect SM is an American company which provides diagnostic information about lung cancer by measuring the level of HAAH in a person’s serum after a simple blood test.  (HAAH is an enzyme which acts as a biomarker of cancer).  Individuals who have both early and late stages of lung cancer have higher serum HAAH levels than individuals who do not have lung cancer.  If the test results show an elevated level, the physician would then carry out further assessments to determine if lung cancer is present.  This diagnostic test from Panacea Pharmaceuticals ( was named as one of TimeR Magazine’s ten biggest medical breakthroughs in 2007.

Lung cancer is a malignant tumour which originated in one or both lungs and which can ultimately migrate to other regions of the body such as the liver (the commonest site of the secondary spread of cancer cells), the bones, brain, and lung and adrenal glands. This is done via the lymphatic system.  It often migrates to the lymph glands which enlarges them (they will also feel hard).  The commonest location is the inside of the neck or just above the collarbone.  (A key feature of cancer cells, as opposed to most normal cells, is their ability to break free from the tissue of which they are a part of).

When the spread of cancer cells away from the tumour (metastasis) includes the penetration of blood vessels, then the cancer cells are free to circulate throughout the body, and as a consequence leave the blood vessels to establish secondary tumours in other locations.  Critically, these tumours have a high metabolic activity, and automatically stimulate a growth of blood vessels in the area. – This rapidly accelerates their growth through the added supply of oxygen and nutrients.

The majority of lung cancers begin in the cells lining the bronchi (carcinoma of the bronchus).  Lung cancer accounts for the highest number of cancer deaths worldwide in both men and women.  It is the most common form of cancer, and each year well over a million people die from it. The majority of lung cancer sufferers have been made victims through smoking tobacco or being a passive smoker, in fact it is estimated that 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking.

Men and women are both susceptible to lung cancer, and recent research indicates that women are more prone to developing it.  The risk of contracting it increases with age in both men and women.  The forecast for those diagnosed with lung cancer is tragic. –  At the time of writing, the British Lung Foundation states that only 20% of people are still alive 1 year after diagnosis, and only 6.3% of men, and 7.5% of women have a 5 year survival rate.

According to the National Cancer Institute in the US cigarette smoking is responsible for nearly one-third of all cancer deaths every year, with smoking being the most universal risk factor in the development of lung cancer. Some non-smokers do acquire lung cancer, which is thought to be strongly rooted in genetics.

Survival rates are also not at all good in the US - only around 14% of patients survive for 5 years.  (Whilst the percentages of survival rates in all countries fluctuate, the numbers are still critically low).

In lung cancer (carcinoma) there are 2 main categories: “small cell lung cancer” which covers approximately 20% of cases, and “non-small cell lung cancer” which covers approximately 80% of cases. 


This is categorised in one form.


This is categorised into 3 different forms:

Large cell carcinoma


Squamous cell carcinoma


This from of lung cancer is highly aggressive. Virtually all small cell cancers are caused by smoking and affect around 1 in 5 lung cancer cases. 

The cells in this form of tumour are small and fragile.  They nearly always develop in smokers, generally in the central part of the lung, where they spread to the lymph glands and bloodstream in the early stages of cancer development.  The rate of growth of these tumours is greater than other main forms of lung cancer, and usually tragically fatal as the tumour cells often migrate to far off regions of the body by the time a correct medical identification is given. Also, some tumours are extremely difficult to treat with radiation because of their immediacy to vital organs, the varied forms of tissue in the area, and their irregular degrees of susceptibility to radiation. 


The cells in this tumour are somewhat larger than the other types.  They do not form recognisable structures, and they do not produce the protein keratin.  These tumours are usually found in smokers and may develop in the central or peripheral (outer) part of the lungs.  They spread within the airways to the lymph gland via the bloodstream.


Adenocarcinoma is common in women and is frequently connected with smokers, although it is also associated with the largest number of non-smokers.  It is slow-growing, and is often challenging to identify. – This is because it characteristically involves the edge of the lung, and early symptoms are far fewer than those of other types of cancer which develop centrally, near the airways.  It can sometimes migrate to the lymph glands or to other regions of the body at an early stage.  Regretfully, lung adenocarcinoma has often spread by the time any observable symptoms develop. 


This is the most common type of lung cancer where the tumour cells produce keratin which can be seen in the tumour.  It is normally due to smoking and occurs far more frequently in smokers than non-smokers.  It progresses more slowly than other forms of lung cancer and begins to spread at a later stage.  It develops in the cells which line the major airways (the bronchi), and spreads by invading the local tissues.  From here it makes its way into the lymph nodes and into the bloodstream.

Approximately 75% of cancers could well be due to  individual lifestyle choice. Just as with other  diseases, the risk of lung cancer and cancer in general, may be escalated not just by genetic traits, but by biological functioning, chemical toxins, unhealthy food, medication, food quality, type of beverages including water consumption, nutritional balance and deficiencies, and psychological well-being.


According to scientific researchers, there is a cancer-causing mutation in the “k-ras”gene.  Sadly, individuals with this form of gene mutation are more likely to lose their lives than other lung cancer sufferers.  Researchers conducting trials at Harvard University and the University of California discovered the mutation in 10% of lung cancer cases.  They also found that it was three times more common in female smokers compared to male smokers.  (This gender difference may be due to the effects of oestrogen which may increase tumour growth). 

A report published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute indicates that it is probable that carcinogenic substances from tobacco cause virtually all k-ras mutations.  There is not yet sufficient data to link reduced risk after cessation.  Further research on all aspects is required, as is a screening program.


DNA (the depository of our genetic information and cell instruction guide), consists of two complementary strands coiled around each other in a double helix which represents a twisted rope ladder. The human genome has approximately 20,000 genes in operation at any one time, although it houses considerably more. The whole genetic process is subject to countless individual variations, and minute spelling mistakes within our DNA, can have profound and devastating consequences.

"Now, a new study of over twelve hundred people has identified three hundred and twenty genes that are affected by smoking"
Ref: Drs David Niesel and Norbert Herzog, (University of Texas Medical Branch), Medical Discovery News, "Smoking Your Genes" [online] (Accessed November 11th 2011)

Our genetic instructions are finely balanced, and extremely sensitive to any changes and fluctuations within the cell.  Some of our genes are "switched on", and others are "switched off".  Environmental events (for example smoking or stress), may influence which of our genes are switched on and off.  When our genes are switched on they are being expressed, and conversely, when they are switched off they are not being expressed - hence the term genetic expression.  I strongly urge you to read the reference article by Drs Niesel and Herzog at the aforementioned link.

According to the department of epidemiology at the American Cancer Society, when predicting cancer risk, the length of time a person has smoked is more significant than the number of cigarettes smoked.  According to Cancer Research UK, a smoker who has smoked 20 cigarettes a day for 40 years has a lung cancer risk approximately 8 times higher than a smoker who has smoked 40 a day for 20 years.

The risk of lung cancer and other cancers and disease could, along with other factors, rise according to:

1. The age you first started smoking.

2. The length of time you have smoked.

3. The number of cigarettes you have smoked in the past, and now smoke each day.

4. How deeply you inhale.

5. If the cigarettes have filter-tips (and if you have always smoked filter tips).

6. The number of puffs you get out of each cigarette.

7. How long you actually keep the cigarette in your mouth.

8. Exposure to second hand smoke throughout your lifetime.

Individuals who have suffered lung cancer in the past are more susceptible to developing it again, and are extremely unwise to smoke, even just socially.  The siblings and children of lung cancer sufferers may also have a slightly higher risk of developing lung cancer, particularly if they smoke.


The horrendous fact is that countless cancer victims are not diagnosed until their cancer is severely advanced.  This is because the preliminary symptoms appear as familiar everyday minor ailments.  And as with many other diseases and conditions, there are many common symptoms.

Symptoms to watch out for include: hoarseness, coughing, a worsening cough, coughing up blood in the phlegm, shortness of breath, constant chest or upper back pain, mucous production, a blockage in the airways, difficulty swallowing, reduced appetite, weight loss, weakness, a swollen face, abnormalities appearing on the nails, an abnormally raised temperature, discomfort in the chest region, and repeated attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis.  (From all of the aforementioned, a cough is the commonest symptom). IF YOU EXPERIENCE ANY ONE OF THESE SYMPTOMS SEE YOUR MEDICAL PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. 

Individuals with lung cancer may not always show lung cancer symptoms. - They may produce symptoms which have been initiated by the spread of cancer cells.  It is absolutely essential to understand that a tumour may not be evident until it is mature. – This is why the name “silent disease” is given to this savagely cruel fate.  Lung cancer really is the end of the road, and that is why you have to get a grip on changing your lifestyle before it is all too late.


Various factors determine prognosis.  These include:

The form of lung cancer

The stage of development

The age of the individual

Overall health

Any other illnesses or conditions


The medical consultant will take breath and pulmonary function tests and determine if there is any fluid on the lungs, look for swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged liver, or masses in the abdomen.  He/she can also arrange an X-ray, CAT, MRI, ultrasound or PET scan.  Some forms of testing carry risks although these are often outweighed by the benefits.

An X-Ray examination utilises electromagnet radiation which can make images of the bones and organs. 

A CAT (CT) (computerized axial tomography) scan is a type of X-ray imaging which shows three dimensional pictures of internal organs.

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses magnetic and radio waves. (This does not subject the individual to the effects of X-ray radiation, although there may be other risk factors).  An MRI scan can make pictures of practically all the tissues within the body from most angles.

A PET (position emission tomography) can show how the body’s tissues are working.  It can help to show the stage of the cancer, if the cancer has migrated to another part of the body, and whether a lump is cancerous or not.  It can also confirm how effective chemotherapy is, and can help to determine the best form of treatment. 

Having a PET scan involves being injected with a very small amount of a radioactive drug known as a tracer.  (The radioactivity is no higher than that of a standard X-ray, and only stays in the body for a few hours).  The drug is a radioactive form of glucose which travels to regions in the body where glucose is utilised for energy.  It is able to highlight the cancer because the glucose in cancerous areas of the body tissue is utilised in a different way to normal.

An ultrasound scan employs sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.  It is able to monitor and diagnose conditions in various regions of the body.

The main procedure used to identify lung cancer is the use of an auto florescence bronchoscope. - This involves inserting a narrow tube down the airways (under anaesthesia), and allows the physician to highlight any abnormal areas which could be in the path of becoming cancerous.  A biopsy (tissue sample), will be taken if necessary.

The use of genomic tools which have the ability to investigate different molecular abnormalities, and treatments specifically tailored to an individual’s genotype are the way forward and urgently needed.  For example, exploratory testing using DNA chips (also known as gene chips) that can check tens of thousands of genes at a time, is now in limited operation.  When the DNA of a tumour is tested in this way, it enables the examiner to determine which genes are “turned on” and “turned off” in comparison to normal tissue.  The “active” “turned on” genes which do show up can bring on radically different clinical outcomes for each individual.

If you should find yourself in the position of needing any exploratory tests, I strongly advise you to do all you can to go as a private patient and have immediate attention.  

Cyber knife surgery is now the most advanced form of radio-surgery that destroys the tumour with the minimum exposure of radiation to the normal tissue surrounding it. Yet sadly, even this advance in treatment cannot stop cancerous cells spreading to other regions of the body. 

At the present time, surgical removal of lung cancer, (if possible), offers the best chance of survival.  Depending on the characteristics of the tumour as well as other factors, surgery may be carried out in order to:

Extract a small portion of the diseased lung tissue

Extract the entire lung or

Extract the whole organ.

After surgery, chemotherapy (drug treatment which is usually given intravenously; and radiation are usually utilized.  Chemotherapy is normally used in the case of small cell lung cancers - this is because they normally spread too rapidly for the surgery to be effective.  Radiotherapy is frequently used as well.  One of the problems with this form of treatment is that if the cancer cells do not react to the damaged DNA which has been deliberately administered by medical therapeutic agents, then the treatment will be futile.  A relatively new form of cancer drugs – “Growth Factor Inhibitors” are now in use. 

Targeted cancer therapies involve the use of drugs (or other substances), that are able to halt the growth and proliferation of cancer. These therapies that are used in specific cancers include drugs which: interfere with both cell growth signalling and tumor blood vessel development; and encourage cancer cell death. They prompt the immune system to destroy targeted cancer cells, and send them toxic drugs.

Any affected lymph glands are removed where possible. – If the cancer has migrated to the lymph glands situated at the root of the lung, it is usually possible to remove them.  If however, the tumour has migrated to the lymph glands in the centre of the chest or begun to infiltrate other structures within the chest (e.g. the heart or major blood vessels), then sadly, surgery is futile.

Chromosomal damage in the lungs is apparent in the majority of chronic smokers, and regretfully, an elevated risk for contracting lung cancer can persist for over 20 years after cessation.  On the fortuitous side, however, the risk drops significantly – even in the first year of quitting.

The essential thing to understand when you read about all the treatments is that:

A. They may not be successful, and

B. If you do not have adequate fully comprehensive private insurance or a vast amount of savings (which may need to be in the tens of thousands of dollars, euros etc.), some of the better treatments and medications will not be available on your government’s free health care system, if there is one.  And for those treatments which may be available - the waiting time, which is so very critical, even by the number of days, may be too long.

I urge you to print off coloured pictures of the various forms of lung cancer. Go to: 

or any other relevant site by typing in “pictures of lung cancer” in a search engine.  How about having a large colored picture of diseased lungs as your computer screen wallpaper? – It sounds horrendous, yet deep down subconsciously the imagery will have a positive impact on you, in contrast to the written words of warning on a cigarette pack. 


    Significant scientific data indicates that in addition to lung cancer, smoking is a major cause or contributor to: cancer of the mouth, tongue, larynx (voice box), pharynx (throat), oesophagus (gullet/muscular tube which carries food from the pharynx to the stomach), bladder, colon/rectum, liver, pancreas, kidney, cervix, and stomach.  Myeloid leukaemia (the uncontrolled proliferation of a form of white blood cells) is also connected to smoking. Sadly, some of these conditions are terminal.  It is easy to understand the disease process in some of these aforementioned conditions - even for those who do not think holistically (view the body’s workings as a whole). – The mouth throat and chest regions naturally suffer as they are directly challenged, and carcinogens excreted in the urine can be seen to bring on the often fatal cancer of the bladder etc.; but consider the wide-reaching effects to all the body’s biological systems, and the upheaval and imbalance that results.  It is my fervent hope that this book will impart readers with a “holistic view” of their body. – A body that works in dynamic co-ordination with every cell, tissue, organ and system, in an unbreakable physical and psychological unison.

On a much-needed positive note, I would like to refer to a discovery in the US - a molecule which has the potential to halt the production of cancer cells from the very beginning of the process has been identified.  The intention is to switch off the genetic regulators responsible for changing normal healthy cells into cancerous ones.

“Genetic regulating” is only in its infancy, but scientists are making fast-track progress. The potential is enormous for cancer therapy based on the great importance of regulators in the process of “reprogramming” a gene (a process known as gene regulation).

The latest cancer research includes: biomarker screening, signalling pathway mapping, inflammation investigation, nanotechnology, cell freezing techniques, and monitoring the results of “gene silencing”.  In addition to these and other techniques, the continuing study of stem cells allows an insight into the mechanisms of the differentiation and division of cancer cells.

Information on all forms of cancer and related subjects including the additional use of holistic/complementary therapy in cancer treatment can be found on the excellent and very comprehensive website belonging to the National Cancer Institute (Information is available in both English and Spanish).  It can be found at:

Other than lung cancer, the two most common lung diseases are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. 


Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi produced from irritants such as smoking and pollution.  This inflammation swells the mucous membranes which line the bronchi, and restricts the movement of the mucous out of the body by the cilia.As a result the width of the bronchi is decreased and ventilation is thus impaired. When excess mucus is lodged in the airways it can result in a recurrent and uncontrollable painful cough.  Chronic inflammation of the bronchioles can result in emphysema.


Hydrogen cyanide and other chemicals in cigarette smoke particles persistently attack the lining of the bronchi day in, day out, creating call damage, inflammation, infection, and coughing.  Most smokers’ lungs are constantly inflamed, and their lung tissues house a large number of immune cells.

Over a long period of time, inflammation can generate an irreversible lining of thick scar tissue on the walls of the bronchioles, severely narrowing the airways. Long-term inflammation can also lead to the protein in the walls of the bronchi and alveoli literally being “eaten away”.  Protein-digesting enzymes that work to digest smoke particles engulfed in the cells can leak into nearby tissues. – Critically, once eaten away, it does not regenerate.  


I am giving cilia a paragraph of their own, as understanding their function is very helpful.  Cilia are little hair-like projections in the lungs.  They have two functions – one is to increase the surface area of the bronchioles - allowing oxygen to pass through the capillaries behind them; and the other is to move mucous and phlegm around (to prevent clogging), by swaying back and forth. Nicotine stunts and deadens the tiny cilia with its tar – this creates congestion which reduces the capacity of the lungs, and lowers the body’s ability to gage and respond to the irritants from the smoke.  Over time, toxins from the cigarette smoke accumulate in the clogged-up mucous.  The environment of trapped mucous also encourages the growth of microbes, which can easily bring on infections such as pneumonia.

After a night’s sleep and many hours without smoking, the cilia start to get into action and begin to “sway” – hence the smokers’ cough first thing in the morning.  When the body attempts to dispel built-up mucous through coughing, it can create added pressure and permanently destroy the thin fragile walls of the microscopic alveoli.


Emphysema is dead lung tissue.  Critically, this degenerative disease gradually and systematically destroys the body’s ability to breathe. When we inhale and the oxygen is passed from the air to the blood, the alveoli covering the surface of the lungs stretch. When we exhale the alveoli constrict to expel the carbon dioxide.

Smoking permanently damages the delicate cell walls of some of the alveoli, leaving them less elastic, and eventually breaking them down and leaving large empty spaces. - This is known as emphysema.  The damage to the cell walls culminates in a reduction in the connection between the alveoli and the blood capillaries, larger yet fewer air sacs, and floppy lungs.  At this point breathing becomes arduous and uncomfortable because the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the body is impeded.  - As a consequence, less oxygen is able to get into the blood, and less carbon dioxide is able to escape. Cumulative damage continues.

I strongly recommend going to a search engine and typing in “images of emphysema”.  These are very disturbing to look at, and should be printed off in enlarged coloured pictures.  Looking at these every day will greatly help your automatic thought processes, and aid your cessation.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a forgotten killer.  It is primarily made up of two associated conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema - both of which pose a chronic obstruction of air flow through the airways and in and out of the lungs.  COPD refers to long term damage to the lungs which makes it hard for the individual to breathe.  It brings on heavy fatigue both mentally and physically, along with all the other knock-on effects a lack of oxygen brings.  These include: panic attacks (due to fear of suffocation), depression and anxiety, imprisonment in the house, zero sex life, sleep difficulties and acidosis.  Sufferers often have cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and anaemia, as well as alterations in body make-up.  Tragically, some people are restricted to life in a wheelchair.  The financial implications of this cruel disease can be catastrophic, and care arrangements provided by the state may be far from satisfactory.

COPD is usually attributed to smoking, and is most common in the 60-plus age group, although it is also found in people of age 30 upwards.  Genetic factors, amongst others, are thought to play a role.  COPD becomes worse over the years and is classed in stages.  Damage to the lungs is PERMANENT.  According to the World Health Organisation, it is currently classed as the fifth largest global killer, and is predicted to rise even higher, possibly being the third leading cause of death by 2030.  Alas, smokers who only have minor symptoms may not suspect COPD, and quite naturally, do not feel the need to visit a specialist.  When they finally do, it is all too late.

Whilst suffers are able to inhale quite well, breathing out poses severe difficulties. – Critically the lungs are unable to recoil as they should, and the damaged airways, inflammation, and mucous, compounds the problem. – The result is “trapped” stale air. – Hence the need to hyperventilate.  Many COPD suffers lose their lives to “respiratory failure”.

Medical tests include: a Gas Transfer test (gas diffusion) which determines the efficiency of the transfer of gas from the alveoli to the blood; an Arterial Blood Gas test which shows the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the blood,  and measures blood acidity; and an MRI scan to determine how far oxygen can travel through the airways (after the patient has inhaled a special magnetised gas).

When I studied COPD at university, we were given a simple test to understand how someone would struggle to breathe. – This test can be easily done: place a straw in your mouth and pierce your lips as though you are going to have a drink through the straw. Now hold your nostrils together so that you are unable to breathe through your nose. – You are now forced to breath in air only through the tiny straw opening. – But how long can you go on for before you have to open your mouth to gasp for air?  -You can do it, but a sufferer cannot. - Now you have some idea of how a sufferer feels – but this does not begin to demonstrate the other frightening consequences of a lack of oxygen to all the cells and systems in the body.

It is important to be clear that smoking generates a dangerous “permanent state of inflammation” in the lung tissues, which has serious consequences – in some cases, it continues even after successful cessation. 

Confusingly, COPD is also known chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD), and chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). – All this muddle does not give COPD the serious attention it warrants.

Suffers with advanced COPD may need to spend over half of each and every day hooked up to an oxygen canister.  In grave cases, lung volume reduction surgery (the removal of diseased tissue) may be possible, and a small percentage of sufferers may opt for a lung transplant – a highly complex and high-risk procedure. There are a number of restrictions on being a candidate for lung surgery, cessation is one of them.  Fortunately, since my writing this article, there is now a new technology called "lung volume reduction coil" surgery, which may be suitable for certain severe emphysema sufferers.  It involves fitting a tiny expandable coil (endoscopically) to gather up the dead lung tissue.  - Germany is a leader in this field.  Also, stem cell therapy looks like it could be a much needed realistic miracle solution in the not too distant future.

For further information on COPD and other relevant subjects, visit the website of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, in the US at:

For information on surgery visit the American Lung Association at: 

Pneumonia refers to an infection or inflammation in the lung tissue.  It is produced by various micro-organisms – viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and the inhalation of corrosive or toxic chemicals.  There are various categories of susceptibility, including individuals with smokers’ lungs, and those with a weak immune system. 

Infection can cause inflammation of the air sacs (alveoli) and smaller airways which also become packed with fluid. – At this point the lungs are unable to work properly and are not able to obtain the normal amount of oxygen.


Smoking is the highest risk factor in the development of lung cancer.

Smoking is the principal risk factor in arteriosclerosis.

Smokers are 2-3 times more likely to suffer a heart attack.

Smoking can increase the chance of having a stroke – especially in women.

Smoking is a risk factor for resistance of the hormone insulin.  Middle-aged men who are heavy smokers may be almost twice as likely to develop diabetes, and women smokers have a lesser, but increased risk.

Smoking during pregnancy can result in twice as many children being born with cleft lips and palates.

Smoking during pregnancy raises the risk of the baby developing diabetes in later years.

Diabetics who smoke increase their risk of diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, and nerve-related problems.

Smoking is responsible for practically all cases of chronic breathing obstruction.

Male smokers are more inclined to have less sexual stamina. 

Smoking raises the risk of impotence (erectile dysfunction) by around 50 percent for men in their 30s and 40s.

     Smoking could damage male sperm and increase the risk of fathering children with brain cancer and leukaemia.

Smoking is connected to increased liver scarring (cirrhosis) created by either excessive alcohol or chronic hepatitis B or C.

Some studies suggest that nicotine can lead to fatal arrhythmias.

Smoking triples the risk for acquiring thyroid disease – especially autoimmune hyper and hypothyroidism.

Smoking can increase the detrimental effects of hypothyroidism on the heart.

Smoking is connected with goitre (the swelling of the thyroid gland).

Smokers suffer from higher than average rates of Crohn’s disease.  (Those who    successfully quit should experience far less difficulty).

Smokers can suffer from poor circulation.

Smokers have lower bone density.

Smokers are at increased risk of spinal problems and related degenerative disorders.

  Smokers suffer from lower back problems.  (In fact, individuals who have jobs which    include heavy lifting are more inclined to develop back pain).

Smoking damages muscle building.

Smoking may raise the hazard of age-related muscle-wasting.

Smokers suffer from muscle tightness and vertebral subluxation.  Vertebral subluxation occurs when one or more bones in the spine are out of alignment. - This creates pressure and irritation to the spinal nerves with far-reaching consequences.

Smoking greatly increases the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma, a form of skin cancer.

Smokers who consume more than one pack a day could be more likely to suffer from Alzheimer’s disease.

Smokers can suffer from more digestive disorders including:

The alteration of healthy mouth saliva (which works as a defensive buffer for enzymes to neutralize dangerous substances) into a corrosive compound capable of destroying the enzymes.

Indigestion after eating.

Diverticulosis (the formation of small pouches which bulge out from weak points along the intestines which are subject to infection and inflammation). 

Increased acid secretion within the stomach.  

A lower blood flow and production of compounds which serve to protect the lining of the stomach.

Peptic ulcers (a peptic ulcer refers to an area of the stomach or duodenal lining which is eroded by stomach acid).

Smoking is known to irritate the bladder.

Smokers are 2.5 times more likely to suffer from eye disease. 

Smoking decreases the supply of oxygen to the eyes, and may cause the minute veins within them to block.  This starves the eyes of essential nutrients and protective antioxidants.  

Smokers may be 3 times more likely to develop a variety of the most vision-threatening cataracts, and are more likely to suffer from dry eye syndrome. 

They could also experience light sensitivity.  Studies show that regular smokers may have more than double the risk of contracting macular degeneration.

Heavy smoking may generate an overgrowth of the furry papilla on the tongue surface, creating an ideal trap for germs.

Smoking is associated with increased susceptibility to tooth loss and periodontal disease.  Smoking irritates the gum tissues and increases tartar deposits. 

Smokers may be up to 5 times more likely to lose their teeth because of the reduced levels of oxygen reaching the gums.  Smokers are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer.

There may be a connection between smoking and grey hair for both sexes, and smoking and baldness in men.

The longer you have been a smoker the higher the risk and the higher the   lethal daily toxic load and long-term accumulation. 

Even if you do not suffer from any afflictions and are a part-time or very light social smoker, remember that gradual accumulative damage is not visible from the outside. 

Research appears to show that even smoking as little as one cigarette a day increases the risk of lung cancer.  It also shows that smokers who have less than ten cigarettes a day are often less motivated to quit than their heavy smoking counterparts. - This is because they often delude themselves by feeling confident that they are in a low-risk category.  A Norwegian study published in 2005 involving 43,000 smokers suggested that smokers who had up to five cigarettes a day were three times more likely to die from heart disease and more prone to die from all causes than non-smokers.  Research on these other causes is less available, however your biological age will definitely be more than it need be. - In the case of heavy smokers, their biological age could be as much as twenty years more than their chronological age.

There is no amount of money in the world that can pay for procedures to correct the far-reaching damage.  Start to look at smokers of different age groups who you pass by each day, how do the over 40s and 50s look?  Do they seem stressed? - Try to picture yourself in 10, 20 or 30 years - do you want to live life to the max and feel and look fantastic, or do you want to age prematurely so that you look and feel worn-out like a fagged-out grey zombie?  Will you be fit enough to keep working or running your business?  Will you still be able to do the pastimes you enjoy?  Will you have enough money for keeping up your lifestyle and running your home if you can no longer work? Will you have the necessary insurance in place for sky high medical bills?  Would you be happy with the care facilities in your country? And even if you have plenty of money and/or great insurance coverage, after treatment do you realise that you will never be in the condition you would be in if you were not a smoker? 

Readers who are interested in having biological age tests at a natural clinical health clinic are encouraged to do so. When people quit smoking, detox and upgrade their nutritional protocol, the poor results which they received initially can really be turned around for the better, on later tests.


In many ways, smoking appears to take a heavier toll on women.  Some research suggests that a woman smoker’s risk of heart attack is approximately 50 percent greater than it is for their male counterparts.  In the US lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women.   Women who smoke and take oral contraceptives have a ten-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet again we see that hormone levels can have far-reaching consequences. – Smoking may increase the risk of heart disease in women by altering normal hormone levels and creating an oestrogen deficiency.

Women who start smoking in their teens and carry on for the next 20 years or more, may increase their chance of developing breast cancer (this could however, be connected to individuals with particular genetic variants).  Further research is needed.

Research indicates that after cessation, lung function in women appears to improve more rapidly than in men.

Becoming pregnant is not always an easy feat, with female smokers being 2-3 times less likely to conceive.  Also the eggs can be damaged or destroyed.  Ovulation can be hindered – particularly in middle age, and there is an increased risk of cervical and vulvar cancer.  Women may suffer from menstrual problems, and those who are pregnant are subject to complications, and have higher levels of miscarriages and still births.  Nicotine collects in the blood of the foetus, the amniotic fluid (a colourless fluid which surrounds the baby and has a vital role in the development of internal organs); and the breast milk.  (As nicotine easily crosses the placenta, concentrations in the foetus can be as much as 15% higher than standard maternal levels).  In 1972 the Surgeon General reported: “Maternal smoking during pregnancy retards fetal  growth”.  (The more a woman smokes whilst pregnant, the greater the reduction in  birth weight).  I would like to note here that quitting in the first trimester of    pregnancy reduces the risk of giving birth to a low birth weight baby.    

Nursing mothers’ breast milk not only contains nicotine, it can actually decrease the amount of milk produced.  Smoking also reduces the mother’s levels of folate - a crucial B vitamin which is significant the prevention of birth defects.

The newborn babies of smoker mothers also show signs of stress and drug withdrawal.  Critically, if the mother smokes in excess of a packet a day during pregnancy, there is almost double the risk that the child will be addicted to tobacco if they engage in smoking later in life.  And as children, they may experience behavioural problems and learning difficulties.

Women smokers who suffer from sub-clinical hypothyroidism (a mild under-active thyroid disorder which is often undetected), are subject to a heightened risk of developing full-scale hypothyroidism.

Menopause with all its unwanted effects and low-downs can arrive 1-4 years before it would in a non-smoker. – This may be related to the link between smoking and reduced oestrogen levels.  It could also account for the fact that women smokers lose more bone mass and have a higher risk of osteoporosis (brittle bone disease).  Also, post menopausal women who smoke are subject to a substantially higher risk factor for hip fracture.  Oestrogen deficiency in women smokers can create irregular menstrual cycles as well as ovarian dysfunction.

Women smokers may also be susceptible to a small increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.  And both current and ex-smokers who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis (especially those who carry particular genes), may well experience a harsher form of this debilitating painful disease.

Women who smoke 20 cigarettes a day throughout adulthood may also experience more hot flushes when menopause does hit. 

And just as smoking and other factors can bring on the “male droop”, they may also be responsible for blood flow to the female genitals.  And in the case of women of a certain age who suffer from sexual arousal difficulties, the cause could be attributed to smoking rather than a hormone deficit.


I have given this subject a section on its own in the hope that this alone will prompt some male readers into immediate action.  Erectile dysfunction is experienced to some degree by an estimated 152 million men globally.  According to ASH (the Action on Smoking and Health Group), smoking increases the risk for men in their 30s and 40s by approximately 50%.

Atherosclerosis appears to be the main cause of erectile dysfunction.  The blood vessel lining (the endothelium) can be damaged by smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes.  When the endothelium is damaged it is not able to expand the arteries to increase blood flow:

Less blood flow = a less firm erection.

Now consider the following 3 points:

  1.  Less blood is able to flow into the penis when the route is hindered by long term accumulation of fatty deposits along the arteries.

  2.   Quick contractions in the penile tissue are a direct and immediate outcome of nicotine stimulation to the brain which hampers arterial flow to the penis.

  3.  The valve mechanism which traps the blood within the penis is compromised owing to the presence of nicotine in the bloodstream.

Smokers may have a reduced volume of ejaculation, can have a lower than typical sperm count, can produce more abnormal sperm, and can have weakened sperm movement. 

If you are a young male smoker you will probably not recognise the connection between the risk of erectile dysfunction and your smoking, and do not believe it will ever happen to your equipment.  You will also probably equate it with older men who suffer from other risk factors.  However, the point to appreciate here is that if you do not quit until you are older, it may be past the point of no return - as irreversible changes in penile vasculature may occur.


Tobacco smoke is a composition of gasses and small particles made from water, nicotine and tar.  The World Health Organisation has stated there are 81 cancer causing chemicals which have now been recognised in cigarettes.  Added to this are literally thousands of added chemicals. For more information visit: 

In 1994 the major tobacco companies submitted a list of 599 cigarette additives to the US Government. Although these additives were approved for inclusion in food, critically they were not tested by being burnt, as they are in cigarettes at over 800 degrees C (1,400 degrees F).  – And as anyone who studied chemistry at school or college can appreciate, it is the burning of these additives that changes their properties. When a cigarette is lit the burning ingredients discharge a deadly array of chemical compounds. – Thousands of chemical compounds are produced when a cigarette is burned, and many of these are poisonous and/or carcinogenic. Well known chemicals include:


Acetone is the pungent solvent used in products such as nail polish remover.


Acetaldehyde works to reinforce the impact of nicotine on the brain and central nervous system.  It is known to generate aging (especially of the skin).


Acetylene is the fuel which is used in torches.


Ammonia is a harsh cleaning agent.  Compounds of ammonia hasten the delivery ofnicotine by elevating the alkalinity of the tobacco smoke.


Arsenic was the favourite poison of Victorian times - as in get rid of your miserable husband! This deadly substance is used in insecticides and rat poison. Arsenic-containing pesticides are prevalent in tobacco farming. Inorganic arsenic has been linked to lung and skin cancer.


Benzene is a petrol derivative.  It is used as a solvent in fuel and the manufacture of drugs and the production of nylon.  It is known to cause leukaemia.


Benzopyrene is a mixture of two hydrocarbons, one of which is thought to be highly carcinogenic.  Benzopyrene is thought to be responsible for causing tumours.


Beryllium is a highly toxic metal.  It is used extensively in the production of chemicals and electrical components.  A high exposure level can create severe bronchitis or pneumonia.  Although human epidemiology studies are limited, they do suggest a causal link increasing lung cancer risk.


Cadmium is a highly poisonous heavy metal used in batteries and fireworks.  It may increase the risk of lung and prostate cancer, can do irreversible damage to the kidneys, generate emphysema, anaemia, hypertension, reproductive damage, and foetus malformations; adversely affect the bones and joints, and cause loss of smell. Smokers usually exhibit significantly higher cadmium body burdens then non-smokers.  Smoking affects the thyroid through the ingestion of chemicals, and significant data links long-term smoking and suppressed thyroidal function to cadmium toxicity. The disturbing characteristic about cadmium is that it accumulates primarily in the liver and kidneys which can create tissue damage, and on top of all this, has a long biological lifespan of 17 -30 years within the body. 


Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, odourless and colourless gas found in exhaust pipe fumes.


Ethanol is an alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and a flammable liquid.  It has many uses including: being used as a solvent, anti-freeze, and gasoline additive and substitute.  It is toxic and depresses the central nervous system.  Moderate amounts depress inhibitory activities of the brain and appear to invigorate the mind.


Formaldehyde is a highly poisonous and highly flammable liquid gas.  It is used as an embalming fluid to preserve dead bodies, and as a disinfectant.  It is an eye nose and throat irritant, and can generate lung and skin allergies.


Hydrogen cyanide is a colourless poisonous gas and industrial pollutant.  It is used in pesticides to exterminate rats and other forms of vermin, and has been used as a genocidal agent.


Lead is a heavy metal which was once an ingredient used in paint.  Since it was found to be highly toxic it has now been banned.


M   Methanol is an alcohol used in wood.


Nickel is a chemical used in the manufacture of batteries and coins.


Nicotine is the colourless liquid which becomes brown when it is burnt.  It is a poisonous alkaloid sourced from tobacco plants which belong to the nightshade group.  Most cigarettes contain 10 milligrams or more of nicotine, and the average smoker actually inhales 1 to 2 milligrams of vaporised nicotine per cigarette.  It is essential to realise that it only takes a small amount to start or re-start an addiction.

Nicotine has a complex range of actions, many of which have a very serious and highly detrimental affect on the body’s vital functions.  Some actions are not yet fully understood, and are under investigation. Scientific findings indicate that nicotine can contribute to cancer risk by suppressing programmed cell death, inducing angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels), and stimulating cell growth.

Programmed cell death is one of the body’s greatest defense strategies against cancer invasion. – In a normal case scenario, cells are poised ready to self-destruct if there are severe abnormalities.

Nicotine has powerful “angiogenic” (blood vessel growth) abilities. It seizes an internal nicotinic cholinergic pathway in the endothelial cells (the cells which cover blood vessels) which are involved in both physiological, and pathological (pertaining to disease) blood vessel growth. Alarmingly, through the elevation of pathological angiogenesis, nicotine has the ability to speed up tumour growth.  This is one reason why nicotine replacement products are not recommended in “The Winning Way to Quit Smoking”.

Disturbingly, nicotine also plays a role in cell multiplication. - It has the ability to bind to “acetylcholine” receptors on the membranes of the cells by hijacking the place of the normal chemical which is part of the body’s usual biological processes. 

Note: acetylcholine is pronounced: a-cee-til-coline.

These acetylcholine receptors are prevalent in nerve cells in the brain and non-nerve cells such as those in the lungs. Critically, if nicotine attaches to the acetylcholine receptors on the surface of lung cancer cells, they are promoted to divide and grow.  (The consequence of nicotine on non-small cell lung cancer cells is exceptionally evident).

It is vital to understand that when the body’s tissues have low concentrations of carbon dioxide, the effect of nicotine on cell growth is particularly fierce. (The site of smokers’ damaged lung tissue is a case in point).  Lethally, a smoker on one packet a day can generate a carbon monoxide saturation range of anywhere between 7-15% within an 8 hour period.

The body metabolizes approximately 90% of nicotine into a substance named “cotinine”. Cotinine is then metabolised into a number of compounds. Recent research has indicated that the body’s enzymes can transform nicotine into “aminoketone” – a natural precursor of the carcinogenic nitrosamine NNK. – The amount of aminoketone generated which actually becomes NNK has not yet been determined.  Further research on nicotine metabolism is needed.


Nitrogen gas produces cancer-causing nitrosamines within the body’s tissues. 


Like acetaldehyde also works to enforce the action of nicotine on the brain and central nervous system.


This trace mineral is essential when taken in minute quantities via food and supplementation.  – In large amounts as a smoking by-product however, it is toxic and increases the chance of contracting lung cancer. 


Tar is the dark sticky substance which is generated from smoke particles and water vapour.  It comprises many toxic and carcinogenic substances, and tends to increase as the cigarette is gradually burnt down.  As a consequence, the last drags may contain as much as double the quantity of tar inhaled in the first puffs.  Owing to this, right from the start of the protocol in the “Preparation Zone”, the cigarettes that you do smoke should not be smoked to the very end.  (You can even start getting into a pattern of just leaving a bit of the cigarette at the end each time you stump it out from right now if you can).

The tar concentration of cigarettes dictates its rating which is as follows:

High tar = 22 milligrams (mg).

Medium tar = 15-21 milligrams (mg).

Low-tar = 7 milligrams (mg) or less.


Chemical herbicides and pesticides are used in abundance in the extensive tobacco fields, and trace quantities of heavy metals may well be present within the tobacco.  And then there is “polonium 210”. - Tobacco which is harvested in a phosphate-rich soil contains radiation from this deadly chemical.  In real terms, a smoker hooked on one or two packets a day could also be buying themselves an ingestion of radiation.


Hundreds of additives can legally be added to tobacco. - Cigarettes have to be palatable, and the lethal ingredients they contain have to be masked by diverse flavourings such as cocoa, sugar, rose oil, brandy, caffeine, tea resinoid, liquorice, spices and herbs. – And this list is not exhaustive, as it is exceptionally long.  Whilst some of these ingredients are quite harmless when eaten or drunk; this is not the case when they are burnt. –To cite one example: when cocoa is burnt in smoking it generates bromine gas. -  This gas acts to dilate the airways, thereby raising the body’s capacity to absorb nicotine.  Some of these additions may also contribute to addiction.

Additionally, some cigarette papers are manufactured using harsh bleaches and other chemicals.  Chemicals are also utilised as “burn enhancers” to keep the cigarette lit, even when smokers are not puffing.  (This alone is responsible for the unnecessary loss of countless innocent lives lost in fires all over the world). 

Even minimal exposure to some of the hazardous chemicals such as titanium dioxide induces reactions such as redness, swelling of the skin and eyelids, and coughing and sneezing.


Manufacturers increase nicotine content by:

  1.Utilising high nicotine tobacco and parts of tobacco leaves that yield higher nicotine. – This raises the nicotine concentration in low tar cigarettes. 

  2. Adding nicotine to strengthen tobacco stems and other waste materials which are manufactured into reconstituted tobacco.

  3. Employing genetic engineering to artificially elevate nicotine content.


There is no safe form of tobacco.  Smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, tobacco powder and snuff) are popular with many people in the misguided belief it is safe. These products are absorbed into the body via the digestive process or via the mucous membranes (the moist lining of the mouth). 


Cigar and pipe smokers consume a smaller amount of tobacco than cigarette smokers. – Their risk factor for contracting a serious disease is however, approximately 70 percent higher than it would be for a non-smoker.  Critically, one large cigar can contain as much tobacco as a whole packet of cigarettes.  (I would like to note here that even Castro himself had to give up cigars).

Cigar and pipe smoking increase the likelihood of developing cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, oesophagus and lung.

Forms of tobacco which are classed as “smokeless”, (e.g. chewing tobacco), heighten the chance of developing oral cancer.

Even cigar and pipe smokers who say they “do not inhale” are still at the very least, putting themselves at risk from lung, mouth and other forms of cancer.  (It is also impossible not to inhale a small amount).


If you regularly smoke marijuana, you should know that in excess, it can promote cancer of the lungs and other regions of the respiratory tract.  Marijuana smoke contains 50-70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than smoke from tobacco.  It also promotes a high level of a particular enzyme which converts certain hydrocarbons into their carcinogenic form - and it is this which could be responsible for malignant cell formation. Additionally, marijuana smokers normally inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than other tobacco smokers.


Hookahs are an apt name! – These Indian and Middle Eastern water pipes are becoming quite popular in many countries.  They contain nicotine, and the abundant smoke is actually more toxic than tobacco smoke.


At the very beginning all cigarettes were unfiltered. Then during the 50s filters were  introduced to improve flavour, in addition to the misguided belief that selective filtration could filter out many of the hazardous substances. – Unfortunately, some reports suggest that the revolution of filter-tipped cigarettes may well produce higher blood levels of carbon monoxide and potentially increase susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.  Filter tipped cigarettes give at least as much vapour and gas as plain cigarettes of the same size.


The majority of cigarette filters are made from cellulose acetate – the same material as camera film.  Each cigarette filter is composed of thousands of minute fibres. – As a smoker puffs away these fibres can disintegrate – this subsequently sends the particles into the lungs.  This dangerous “filter fallout” has been known to the tobacco giants for well over fifty years.


“People who switch to light cigarettes from regular cigarettes are likely to inhale the same amount of hazardous chemicals, and they remain at the highest risk for developing smoking-related cancers and other disease”.

“There is also no evidence that switching to light or ultra-light cigarettes actually help smokers quit”

Ref: The National Cancer Institute

Sadly, the so called “Lights” “Low Tar” and “Reduced Risk” cigarettes have duped smokers, and been responsible for giving them more confidence that they will stay fit and healthy - bringing back ex-smokers into the danger zone, and attracting and addicting young non-smokers.

These low tar “light” cigarettes are primarily the result of the tobacco industry getting away with promoting the concept that machine testing of tar and nicotine is a dependable foundation for smokers to see a clear difference in product types.  The machines are not however, human beings, can never become addicts, and do not automatically smoke more and inhale deeper in order to get the same satisfaction a smoker has been used to.

Mild and light cigarettes have another difference to regular brands. – They are perforated with microscopically small holes in front of the filter.  These vent holes can easily be covered or clogged during smoking by the lips and fingers, which changes the way an individual smokes.  Also, smokers of low tar cigarettes often feel the compulsion to inhale more deeply because of the milder taste - this is known as an “automatic response”.  Alarmingly, it allows the penetration of zooming chemical particles even deeper into the body's tissues. This phenomenon was acknowledged by the tobacco industry as far back as the early 1970s.  It took all the way until the 1980s however, before it gained recognition from the scientific community. Also, smokers usually end up smoking more low tar cigarettes then they would standard ones.  And low tar cigarettes may well be responsible for the form of lung cancer named Aden/o (gland) carcinoma.

In 1981 the US Surgeon General stated: “Smokers may increase the number of cigarettes they smoke and inhale more deeply when they switch to lower yield cigarettes.  Compensatory behaviour may negate any advantage of the lower yield product or even increase health risk” – So here we have the terminology – “compensatory behaviour” – the body’s mechanical response to adjusting back to the norm of what they received before.

In 2003 when the European Union banned the promotion of cigarettes with the words “Low Tar” or “Light” on the pack, the powerful tobacco kingdom was well prepared and ready and waiting with a new scheme of re-branding.  Marlboro Lights were transformed into “Marboro Gold”; Camel Ultra Lights were transformed into “Camel Smooth”, and so on.

There has been much controversy and legal action involved in the manufacturing, advertising, and sale of “light” cigarettes. – The point to be very clear about however, is that whilst there is a difference in tar yield, there is not really any significant difference in the total nicotine content of full flavour and “lights”.


With regard to menthol cigarettes, the degree of lung cancer risk of smokers of menthols compared to smokers of non-menthol cigarettes has not yet been fully determined.  There is no menthol in tobacco plants – it is added to make the smoke have a lighter effect.  Menthol combustion could however, directly produce a carcinogenic effect on lung tissue, and its cooling anaesthetic properties often facilitate deeper inhalation and longer retention within the lungs.  The enjoyment factor that menthol cigarettes generate, allow the cigarette giants to utilise cheaper grade tobacco.


Ethnic variations in lung cancer rates may be linked to an enzyme which affects “nicotine metabolism”.  Limited research indicates that Caucasian smokers in the US appear to be around five times more likely to develop lung cancer than Chinese-American smokers.

This enzyme variability which is explained in greater detail in “Addiction Explained” may partly justify the reason why Chinese-American smokers are subject to less toxins and lower rates of lung cancer.  There could however, be alternative reasons such as: the age they started smoking; or a different mode of inhalation (which lessens the stream of ingested toxins. 

On the subject of inhalation, I would like to note that it has been found that African-American smokers (who have been heavily and mercilessly targeted by advertising campaigns for menthol cigarettes), take in more nicotine and carbon monoxide per cigarette than their Caucasian counterparts. - This is very alarming indeed, particularly as most individuals will not be aware of it.

According to a study made at the Tobacco Dependence Clinic, at the University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey, menthol cigarettes are harder to give up, especially among African- American and Latino smokers.  

As menthol cigarettes exert a cooling effect, smokers easily inhale more nicotine form each cigarette, and consequently sustain a stronger and more addictive dosage. – This could contribute to the higher rates of lung cancer suffered by African-Americans, and its sinister development at a much younger age.


When you cease smoking the following fantastic benefits are possible:

After 20 minutes both your heart rate and blood pressure return to normal.

After 8 hours the nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in your blood are halved and oxygen levels in the blood return to normal.

After 24 hours carbon monoxide is eliminated from your body, and your lungs begin to eliminate debris.

After 24 hours the risk of a heart attack decreases.

After 48 hours there is no nicotine left in your body and your sense of taste and smell start to improve.

After 72 hours your breathing starts to become easier, your bronchial tubes start to relax, and your energy levels increase.

By the end of the first week your sense of smell improves, and your skin and eyes become clearer.  Dry eye syndrome and eye irritation may show a change for the better.

After 2-12 weeks circulation improves and walking and exercise becomes easier.

Within 3 -9 months breathing difficulties, coughing and wheezing improve as your lung function increases by up to 10 percent.

After a successful cigarette-free year breathing problems improve further, and the risk of coronary heart disease declines.  Additionally, the natural cilia re-grow which helps lung functioning and reduces the risk of lung infection.  You overall energy gradually increases.

After 5 years the risk of lung cancer drops and continues to do so in the cigarette-free years that follow.  Your lungs become stronger and function 5-10% harder.

After 5 years your risk of having a heart attack is reduced to approximately half that of a non-smoker’s.

After 15-20 years your risk of developing lung cancer could lower to approximately double the risk of someone who has never smoked.

Your partner, family, friends, loved ones and pets who were around you whilst you smoked will also benefit from being away from the harmful toxins and chemicals your smoking generated.

Note: Research on these benefits is ongoing, and is sometimes inaccurate or inconclusive. The time scale given for these benefits is approximate, and they will vary from one individual to another with possible variables such as: age, genetics, environmental factors (including being subjected to second-hand smoke), diet, general state of health, the presence of any illness at the time of cessation, and mental outlook - including having a positive attitude.

On a ray of sunshine, some of you who will have success with “The Winning Way to Quit Smoking” and continue to make permanent holistic healthy lifestyle choices, could be in a better position then people who have never smoked and neglect their bodies. 


Looking at old age as a non existent place far, far away that does not concern us is common. – In the same vein, a smoker usually views the consequences of smoking as a problem which is far, far away, and which will probably not affect them.  – After all, to a young or 30-something smoker, heart disease and cancer seem inconceivable –in any case, as they say – “We all have to die from something don’t we?”

But the reality is - as a smoker, each and every day you are systematically damaging all the systems, organs, tissues, cells, functions and mechanisms of the body – even if you are just 18. – And as the years merge one into another like grains of sand falling through an hour glass which can not be turned back round, the deadly accumulation factor is at work hidden in your aging body without you having any idea of the irreversible harm and accelerated aging you are inflicting on yourself.  Even those who have given up smoking many years ago often have diseases and weaknesses that they may not otherwise have had if they never smoked. – These are however, no where near as bad as they would be if they had not quit.

Never forget that the immune system requires sufficient nutrients, relaxation, sleep and a peaceful state of mind.  When it is compromised by an overload of toxins and stress it malfunctions.  In the case of cancer this could mean it does not have the capacity to destroy developing cancer cells.  If a poor diet is added to the equation matters can only decline – (for example, cancer cells love sugar and are around 15 times more receptive than normal cells for capturing sugar).  In the case of heart disease, a poor diet can actually add to the problem and not offer the relevant nutrients for cleansing, protection and regeneration.  And so the story continues on in the same frame as it contributes to numerous diseases and ill health. 

If you are interested in qutting for good, please read these articles on this blog:



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